Second Life as an Archaeological Tool: Ruth Tringham

A podcast with Ruth Tringham on her work on Okapi Island: listen here ; transcript at

Kevin Ammons: Welcome to the Preservation Technology podcast. I am Kevin Ammons. Today I am visiting with Ruth Tringham, one of the founders of the University of California Berkley the People in Multimedia Authoring Center for Teaching in Anthropology at Berkley (MACTiA). As a professor of anthropology at the University of California at Berkley Ruth uses an online virtual environment called Second Life in her teaching.Kevin Ammons: Welcome Ruth! How did you find yourself at Berkley exploring the notion of Second Life as an archeological tool?

ÇatalhöyükÇatalhöyük (image courtesy of

Ruth Tringham: Well it sort of developed out of my work with digital forms of visualization things like multimedia 3D modeling and of neolithic archaeological sites in southeast Europe and in Anatolian more recently with Çatalhöyük. I actually did know anything about Second Life. It must of been in the early 2000’s because I had been doing this visualization multimedia stuff for – all through the 90’s – at least the last part of the 90’s. But then I was working with this digital technologist I suppose is not really that he is somebody who worked with museums and digital technology called Noah Whitman. He started working with us on a project called Remixing Çatalhöyük and I can tell you about that a little later but while we were working on that, which was really a method of sharing our Çatalhöyük media database with the public, he introduced me to Second Life. He said, “Have you seen this? You might be interested in this.”


New Talent Tuesdays: 3dHistory & Steve Donlin

I’m pleased to announce a new occasional series here on Electric Archaeology: “New Talent Tuesdays”. I have been getting queries from grad students, talented amateurs, avocational archaeologists and historians, about the possibility of contributing to this blog. At first, I was reluctant… but then I thought, why? And no good reason presented itself. So, if I can help someone else join the conversation then that certainly fits the mission of this blog, and academe more generally! If you are interested in contributing, send me a note with a brief background, links to your work, and your ideal topic.

Without further ado, I am pleased to introduce Steve Donlin and his work on 3d representation. Steve is a graduate of University of Maryland with a Bachelor’s Degree in Ancient History.  He currently works outside of the field, but volunteers for numerous historical societies and blogs at

Bringing History to Life through 3d Visualization

I graduated in 2007 from the University of Maryland with a History Degree.  Unimpressive GPA, but still over a 3.0.  I was happy with my path in college but I was a little afraid of the prospect of finding work.  I had tons of student loan debt already so I wasn’t thinking Grad School.  I took the first job I could find.  I began working at the Four Seasons Washington, DC doing Audio Visual work.  Setting up events and selling clients on all the wonders fancy AV could bring to their meetings-  not exactly groundbreaking research on Rome or Egypt!

After a year of working for the company,  I was introduced to a program that really has begun to change my life and my direction.  I began creating 3d models and renderings with Google Sketchup.  Sketchup is a free program distributed by Google that is a more user friendly version of AutoCAD.  Coupling that together with Kerkythea, a free open source rendering program, I began creating 3d renderings of our events and hotel space for our clients.  You can see some of my work here.  I am still learning and hope to increase my talents.  My career path had gone in a new direction.

One evening I was sitting around watching the History Channel and the old series Engineering an Empire came on.  It hit me; I have found a way to meld both parts of my life.  3D Visualization is a perfect way to bring Ancient History to life.  Not only are so many famous monuments from history destroyed or badly damaged; the ones we currently have are not even as impressive as they would have been in their day.  A great example is that Trajan’s Column originally would have been in lush color.  Check out a report here.  What a way to bring this back to life!

How did I get involved in Historical 3d Visualization?  Well I started reading articles about creating your own business, your own blog, or just simply starting your own project.  One great piece of advice was to start tweeting about what you are interested in.  So I created 3dhistory on Twitter.  I began to document all the work I was planning on trying or just some interesting posts that I found.  I am now up to 52 followers, not impressive, but hey they are real people!

About a month in something amazing happened.  I began tweeting about a company I read an article about in Archaeology Magazine: CyArk.  CyArk is a nonprofit, noncommercial project of the Kacyra Family Foundation located in Orinda, California.  CyArk’s mission statement is that they are

“[…]dedicated to the preservation of cultural heritage sites through the CyArk 3D Heritage Archive, an internet archive which is the repository for heritage site data developed through laser scanning, digital modeling, and other state-of-the-art spatial technologies.”

Pretty cool stuff I thought.  I mentioned them in a few posts and they sent me back a message saying they had a lot of very accurate laser scans of Pre-Columbian monuments that could be used to create 3d models.

This started a dialogue that ended up with me creating a 3d Model of their laser scan of Monte Alban, the original capital of the Zapotec Empire.  I was able to use their cloud point technology and Sketchup to recreate the largest building at Monte Alban for their website.  Check it out.  I currently am working on sites at Chichen Itza for them.

I give all my thanks to social networking and the urge to actually put in extra time and put myself out there.  I volunteered for a job I did not know I could finish.  I took a different approach and now I have a great contact in a bourgeoning field which interests me greatly.  I plan on continuing this work as much as I can.  If you are not currently involved in social networking you should be!  I was able to  get in contact easily with a company I read about in a magazine.  I do not know how that would have been possible years ago.

I hope to continue to show these projects more and promote the use of 3d Visualization in history.  Soon I will be launching where I will document my work and the tireless work of others.  There is amazing stuff out there that truly can bring history to life.

Rebuilding Catalhoyuk

On my reading list:

Colleen Morgan, Rebuilding Catalhoyuk (full text)

Building virtual models of archaeological sites has been seen as a legitimate mode of representing the past, yet these models are too often the end product of a process in which archaeologists have relatively limited engagement. Instead of building static, isolated, uncanny, and authorless reconstructions, I argue for a more active role for archaeologists in virtual reconstruction and address issues of representational accuracy, personal expression in avatars and peopling the virtual past. Interactive virtual worlds such as Second Life provide tools and an environment that archaeologists can use to challenge static modes of representation and increases access to non-expert participants and audiences. The virtual model of Catalhoyuk in Second Life is discussed as an ongoing, multivocal experiment in building, re- building, and representing the past and present realities of the physical site.

Digital Media and Learning Competition, HASTAC, archaeological entries

Some archaeological entries in this year’s competition:

The heritage sites of the Mississippi Delta are important cultural monuments. This project brings three key Arkansas heritage sites into Second Life, allowing direct access to those sites for students and the general public. This virtual learning platform will be designed to allow a direct engagement with historic material.

The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis is planning a new exhibit called Treasures of the Earth. The goal is to create an adventure in archaeology featuring three major archeological discoveries and a lab where families can use technology to learn about science and uncover clues to the past.
Dive a hundred feet below sea level and take a voyage back hundreds of years in a virtual simulation game to learn how scientific archaeological methods are used to survey, explore, excavate and interpret submerged cultural resources.
Stone Mirror introduces archaeology via participation in a 3-D “virtual dig” of Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia (southern Turkey). Based on Swigart’s Stone Mirror: A Novel of the Neolithic, students experience both past and present to create a “path of inference” from discovering objects to creating narratives describing their historical meaning.
The goal is to create a system of virtual collaborative environments able to teach how to virtually reconstruct ancient worlds in 3D, involving a community of young users. The system is based on the following archaeological case studies: Roman imperial Villas, ancient Chinese tombs and Mayan sites.

The spatial analysis of past built environments: call for papers

from my inbox:


Dear All,
We would like to let you know about an interdisciplinary and international
workshop on spatial analysis of past built spaces that will take place in
Berlin on the 1st and 2nd of April 2010 (please see details below). Our
two-day workshop aims to promote discussion between a range of researchers in the disciplines of history/archaeology, urbanism, architecture, and computer science who have an interest in the spatial analysis of the built environment, and especially of historic and prehistoric spaces.

A number of very interesting speakers will be participating, and we would
be happy to consider a few more paper abstracts from colleagues willing to
share their views on a topic relevant to the aims of the workshop. Some of
the discussants and speakers will be:

Prof. Bill Hillier (keynote speaker-The Bartlett School of Architecture,
University College London)
Dr David Wheatley (University of Southampton)
Dr Graeme Earl (University of Southampton)
Hannah Stoeger (University of Leiden)
Prof. John Bintliff (University of Leiden)
Dr. Akkelies van Nes (Delft university of Technology)
Piraye Haciguzeller (Université catholique de Louvain)
Dr Quentin Letesson (Université catholique de Louvain)
Ulrich Thaler (German Archaeological Institute Athens)
Dr. Eleftheria Paliou (Topoi Excellence Cluster)

If you are interested in participating please send us your abstracts
(30min for presentation +questions) at by the
20th of January 2010.

All the best,
The organisers
Eleftheria Paliou
Undine Lieberwirth
Silvia Polla

Interdisciplinary and international workshop on spatial analysis in past
built environments

The Area A-III (Archaeoinformatics) of Topoi Excellence Cluster, is
organising a two-day workshop on “Spatial analysis of past built spaces”.
The workshop is scheduled for the 1st and 2nd of April 2010, at the Topoi
building, Free University, Berlin. The two-day workshop aims to promote
discussion among a range of researchers in the disciplines of, history/archaeology, urbanism, architecture, and computer science who have an interest in the formal spatial analysis of past built environments. A
summary of the workshop can be found below. More information about the
Topoi Excellence Cluster can be found at:

The workshop is funded by the Topoi Excellence Cluster and there are no
registration fees.

Summary of the workshop:
Within archaeology, computer-based spatial analysis (for example,
GIS-based analysis) has been widely applied to the investigation of
historic and prehistoric space, both domestic and ritual. Typically,
however, the focus has been on larger spatial scales (‘landscapes’) rather
than urban spaces and buildings. More recently, a range of formal spatial
analytical methods have begun to be developed for the study of human
engagement, experience and socialisation within the built environment.
Many, although not all, of these emanate from the fields of architectural
and urban studies. Methodologies whose origins lie in Hillier and Hanson’s
Space Syntax, and in formal methods developed in the field of urban
studies (using, for example, axial and visibility graph analysis, are now gaining in popularity among researchers of historic and prehistoric urban environments; concepts such as visibility, movement, and accessibility within urban spaces have been given increasingly more weight in contemporary studies of built spaces
dated in a variety of periods, such as the Aegean Bronze Age, Iron Age,
Roman period, Byzantine and Medieval Eras. The application of these new
methods within the realms of history and archaeology therefore appears
promising. Archaeological and historical research would clearly have a lot
to gain from theoretical and methodological frameworks that aim to
investigate human-environment relationships and social aspects of built
space. Equally, archaeological and historical approaches may have a
distinct contribution to make to contemporary architectural theory and
urban design concepts. An interdisciplinary meeting that brings together a
variety of researchers including archaeologists, architects, urban
planners and computer scientists to discuss common areas of interest
could, therefore, encourage new directions of research in the study of
built environment.

Presentations and discussion will take place mainly at the first day of
the workshop. The program will be arranged so that around two-thirds of
time will be dedicated to pre-prepared material, and one third for open
discussion. The invited participants will be asked to make a presentation
on spatial analysis methods that are applicable in past built
environments, such as access analysis, visibility graph analysis, isovist
analysis, agent-based models of pedestrian movement, 3D visibility
approaches. These topics raise questions which would benefit greatly from
a collaborative framework of specialists. These include:

How can spatial analysis facilitate a better understanding of human
engagement, experience and socialization in prehistoric and historic

Can methodologies developed for the investigation of contemporary
environments be successfully applied in historical and archaeological
datasets? What are the limitations? Which research directions have greater
potential to prove fruitful in future research on historic and prehistoric
built spaces?

What, if anything, can archaeological and historical perspectives
contribute to research into contemporary architectural and urban studies?

Are there any human behavioral processes in the built environment that are
common to modern, historic and prehistoric people?

The second day will be partly dedicated to a series of ‘show and tell’
demonstrations of software and analytical methods. An open forum will be
organised, with both presentation and computational facilities available
to those that are interested in participating to this event. Researchers
will be able to demonstrate software, data sets or tools, to run ‘hands
on’ demonstrations and discussions about spatial analysis in built spaces.

Software Turns that Cheap Camera into a 3d Scanner

Now: can you think of some archaeological applications? :)

See this post in Wired.

It’s called ProFORMA, or Probabilistic Feature-based On-line Rapid Model Acquisition, but it is way cooler than it sounds. The software, written by a team headed by Qui Pan, a student at the Department of Engineering at Cambridge University in England, turns a regular, cheap webcam into a 3D scanner. Normally, scanning in 3D requires purpose-made gear and time. ProFORMA lets you rotate any object in front of the camera and it scans it in real time, building a fully 3D texture mapped model as fast as you can turn an object. Even more impressive is what happens after the scan: The camera continues to track the objsct in space and matches it’s movement instantly with the on-screen model.

I haven’t found a website for this software yet, and I have no idea when/if it is available, but let’s hope it is soon. Should be a boon to those folks who are creating immersive archaeological simulations of real sites & artefacts (Colleen?)

edit: the website address turns up in the last few seconds of the video at 3.16,

Masters and Doctoral Theses on Serious Games

A list maintained by Katrin Becker at SFU, ‘Serious Games Pathfinder‘:

The following is a list of Master’s and Doctoral theses that have been completed that have to do with serious games (and in some cases more broadly with digital games). Doctoral Theses are marked in bold. You can get more info on each thesis by clicking on the associated ‘details’ link.

Note: I am just starting to develop this list. So far, almost all the theses are Canadian ones. If anyone has a thesis they would like me to add, please let me know the following:

Name, Title, Year, Degree, Country, Institution, Department, Abstract, URL to the thesis (If you are willing, I’d like your nationality too).

Please send info on theses that are about DIGITAL GAMES ONLY (I am not interested in theses about Game Theory (i.e. math), ELearning, Virtual Spaces, Social Websites, Blogging, Graphics, AI, … UNLESS they specifically focus on applications to or for digital games)

I reproduce below the listing she has for 2008:


details Applications of CSP solving in computer games (camera control) Ali, Mohammed Liakat
details The invention of good games: understanding learning design in commercial video games Becker, Katrin
details Gamers as learners: Emergent culture, enculturation, and informal learning in massively multiplayer online games Chu, Sarah
details Consistency Maintenance for Multiplayer Video Games Fletcher, Robert D. S
details Homeless: It’s No Game – Measuring the Effectiveness of a Persuasive Videogame Lavender, Terrance
details The “Heat Game”: an augmented reality game for scientific literacy Rees, Carol
details Beyond Fun and Games: 
Interactive Theatre and Serious Videogames with Social Impact Shyba, Lori
details Believability, Adaptivity, and Performativity: Three Lenses for the Analysis of Interactive Storytelling. Tanenbaum, Joshua Glen
details Adolescent problem gambling: relationship with affect regulation, Internet addiction, and problematic video game playing Taylor, Robyn N
details Video game expertise and visual search and discrimination Wu, Sijing
details Computer-aided exercise Yim, Jeffrey W.H

Visualisation in Archaeology

An interesting project hosted by Southampton in the UK and English Heritage – see the full website here. They’re hosting what looks to be a fascinating wee conference in October:

Visualisation In Context:
An Interplay of Practice and Theory

22 – 23 October 2009
Hosted by the University of Southampton

The 2009 VIA Workshop is designed to probe the intersections between theory (which might traditionally be represented in terms of critique – linear and written) and practice (which might increasingly be expressed in terms of production – non-linear and visual) within the field of archaeology as well as other disciplines from the humanities and the sciences.

Check out the VIA  showcase:

Online Research Showcase
Centred on the visualisation of data in both archaeology and the wider fields of the social sciences, arts, and science and technology studies. Like the bibliography, these summaries aim to link practitioners across disciplines, highlight innovative visual projects, and offer a platform for future planning and discussion of best practices around archaeological visual method and theory.
Click to view full entry and abstract... Archaeology and Community Museology: Ancient Egyptian Daily Life Scenes in Museums
Gemma Tully
University of Southampton
Click to view full entry and abstract... Choreographic Morphologies: Interdisciplinary Crossovers in the Use of Digital Visualisation Methods in Dance and Archaeology
Helen Bailey, Stuart Dunn, James Hewison, Martin Turner
King’s College London
University of Bedfordshire
University of Manchester
Click to view full entry and abstract... Fractured Media: Challenging the Dimensions of Archaeology’s Typical Visual Modes of Engagement
Sara Perry
University of Southampton
Click to view full entry and abstract... Framing Machu Picchu: Science, Photography and the Making of Patrimony
Amy Cox
University of Florida
Click to view full entry and abstract... Imag(in)ing the Other at Dura-Europos
Jennifer Baird
Birkbeck College, University of London
Click to view full entry and abstract... Institutionalising Images: Early Visualisation Networks in Aegean Archaeology
Deborah Harlan
University of Sheffield
Click to view full entry and abstract... Interactive Panoramas and 3D Modelling Based on Panoramas
Karol Kwiatek, Martin Woolner, Simon Standing, Jes Martens
University of Plymouth, Institute of Creative and Cultural Industries
University of Oslo, Norway, Museum of Cultural History
Click to view full entry and abstract... OKAPI Island in Second Life
Ruth Tringham, Noah Wittman, Colleen Morgan
University of California, Berkeley
Click to view full entry and abstract... Pervasive Gaming, Education, and Cultural Heritage: Emplaced Interpretive Games at the Presidio of San Francisco
Ruth Tringham, Colleen Morgan
University of California, Berkeley
The Presidio Archaeology Lab
Click to view full entry and abstract... Reflexive Representations: The Partibility of Archaeology
Andrew Cochrane, Ian Russell
Cardiff University
University College Dublin
Click to view full entry and abstract... Representing Prehistory: The Biographies of the Robenhausen Lake Dwelling Collections at the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (2008-2009)
Katherine Cooper
University of Cambridge
Click to view full entry and abstract... SahulTime: Rethinking Archaeological Representation in the Digital Age
Matthew Coller
Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Click to view full entry and abstract... Scandalous Artefacts
Alessandro Zambelli
Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London
Click to view full entry and abstract... Strategies of Visualisation in German Archaeology, 19th-20th C
Stefanie Klamm
Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
Humboldt University, Berlin
Click to view full entry and abstract... The Archaeological Eye: Visualisation and the Disciplinary Foundations of British Archaeology
Sara Perry
University of Southampton
Click to view full entry and abstract... The Gateway to Sarup
Niels H. Andersen, Maria Isenbecker, Camilla Bjarnø, Jan Solheim
Moesgård Museum, DenmarkSamsøgades Skole, Denmark
Supported by the Danish Ministry of Culture and the Danish Ministry of Education
Click to view full entry and abstract... The Remediated Places Project
Ruth Tringham, Michael Ashley, Steve Mills, Eric Blind, Jason Quinlan, Colleen Morgan
University of California, Berkeley

Top 100 Learning Games, according to Upside Learning

From the Upside Learning Blog

  1. It is All Fun and Games…And Then Students Learn- Kapp Notes, July 30, 2008
  2. Building Better Learning Games- Learning Visions, April 9, 2009
  3. Marc Prensky – Digital Game-Based Learning
  4. Gadgets, games and gizmos for learning- Clive on Learning, January 29, 2008
  5. How to Delight and Instruct in the 21st Century
  6. What Makes a Learning Game?
  7. Serious Games Blog
  8. mLearn08: MiLK: students building mobile learning games in higher education by Debra Polson- Ignatia Webs, November 12, 2008
  9. Marc Prensky – Twitch Speed, June 17, 2009
  10. Using computer games in education- ThirdForce Blog, January 30, 2009
  11. Digital games and learning gains (PDF), June 17, 2009
  12. Learning in Immersive worlds: A review of game-based learning
  13. Army War College – digital game resources
  14. Immerse Yourself in Another Language- Kapp Notes, June 3, 2008
  15. Resources: Games and Gaming in Education- Don’t Waste Your Time
  16. Which name is better – Serious Games or Educational Simulations or…?- The Learning Circuits Blog, October 13, 2007
  17. Interactive learning with game-based design principles
  18. More Educational Games- Kapp Notes, August 7, 2008
  19. Examples from TWITCHSPEED.COM Digital Game-Based Learning, June 17, 2009
  20. The Art of Making Video Games- Kapp Notes, June 10, 2008
  21. Linking Commercial Games with Defense
  22. Colleges Play Games- Kapp Notes, May 27, 2008
  23. Casual Games get Serious, June 17, 2009
  24. Aspects of Game- Based Learning
  25. Walk a Mile in My Shoes: Games Let You Do That- Kapp Notes, July 30, 2007
  26. Educause
  27. Digital Game Based Learning
  28. Good Video Games and Good Learning
  29. Digital Games: A Motivational Perspective
  30. The use of computer and video games for learning
  31. For a Better World: Digital Game and the Social Change Sector
  32. Games for Change – Toolkit
  33. Lego Games
  34. Additional Resources for Digital Game-Based Learning
  35. Why Are Video Games Good For Learning?
  36. Teaching Educational Games Resources
  37. using the technology of today, in the classroom today
  38. Simulation Games – A Learning Tool
  39. Video games and the future of learning
  40. moving learning games forward
  41. 36 Learning Games to Change the World
  42. Game Development Research
  43. BBC School Games
  44. Yes You CAN Create E-learning Games- Bozarthzone , June 22, 2007
  45. Apple Learning Games
  46. And You Thought Mechanical Engineering was Boring- Kapp Notes, August 14, 2008
  47. Adopting Digital Game-based Learning: Why and How- Upside Learning Blog, March 26, 2009
  48. ZaidLearn: 75 Free EduGames to Spice Up Your Course!, December 11, 2008
  49. A Theory of Fun- Clive on Learning, August 16, 2007
  50. Games e-Learners Play, April 29, 2009
  51. The treatment matrix- Clive on Learning, August 5, 2008
  52. PDF: Serious games: online games for learning (PDF), June 17, 2009
  53. Where games, sims and 3D worlds meet- Clive on Learning, June 24, 2007
  54. The Top 5 Platforms for Creating Educational Video Games « Educational Games Research, June 17, 2009
  55. Caspian’s ILS taxonomy- Clive on Learning, November 17, 2008
  56. 24 Questions about computer games and education- The Learning Circuits Blog, August 8, 2005
  57. Casual and Serious Digital Games for Learning – Some Considerations- Upside Learning Blog, April 17, 2009
  58. Clark Aldrich’s Style Guide for Serious Games and Simulations: costs for simulation, December 11, 2008
  59. Gadgets, Games and Gizmos: Learning Algebra in a Game- Kapp Notes, November 19, 2006
  60. Latest Issue of The Escapist Focuses on War Games and Gaming, September 23, 2008
  61. Games and the Gamer Generation: Keynote- Kapp Notes, August 10, 2007
  62. Games and Learner Assessment- Kapp Notes, May 30, 2008
  63. World Bank: Serious Games and Urban Planning, October 30, 2006
  64. Top 10 Educational Games of the 1980s- Kapp Notes, September 20, 2008
  65. Game Studies 0102: Cultural framing of computer/video games. By Kurt Squire, June 17, 2009
  66. It’s Monday, Are You Stressed? Relax with a Unique Video Game- Kapp Notes, October 29, 2007
  67. Confessions of an Aca/Fan: The Official Weblog of Henry Jenkins: From Serious Games to Serious Gaming (Part Four): Labyrinth, November 14, 2007
  68. Save Planet Helios from ecological devastation!-3D Game by IBM- Kapp Notes, August 29, 2008
  69. Serious Games: Slideshow of examples from an event at Harvard Business School, December 13, 2007
  70. Email Games, June 17, 2009
  71. Trends with Games, December 23, 2008
  72. Learning Circuits – ASTD’s Online Magazine Covering E-Learning
  73. Learning in Video Games
  74. Hong Kong Digital Game Based Learning Association
  75. Gadgets, Games and Gizmos: MMORPG in ICT Education- Kapp Notes, January 16, 2007
  76. GDC’s Serious Games Summit- Upside Learning Blog, April 3, 2009
  77. Rapid authoring for immersive games and sims- Clive on Learning, January 26, 2009
  78. Gadgets, Games and Gizmos: ESL in SL- Kapp Notes, February 13, 2007
  79. What is a Game? The Art of Computer Game Design, June 17, 2009
  80. TCC09: Digital Learning Environments: Context Sensitive and Imaginative Classes in Second Life, April 14, 2009
  81. Why Most Off the Shelf Commerical Games Will Not Work in Education? And What Is The Alternative?, June 17, 2009
  82. Textra Games, June 17, 2009
  83. Shootorials: Kongregate Teaches You How To Make Your Own Games, October 22, 2008
  84. Predictions for 2009, December 30, 2008
  85. Simulations – Are They Games (PDF), June 17, 2009
  86. Serious Games Enhancing The Rehabilitation Environment, June 17, 2009
  87. Training Games, June 12, 2007
  88. Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked, June 17, 2009
  89. Computer Games and the Military: Two Views, June 17, 2009
  90. Serious Games, June 17, 2009
  91. Social Sites, Design, Informal Learning, & Brain Games, May 4, 2009
  92. Groupboard, May 7, 2008
  93. Why Do People Play Games? – The Art of Computer Game Design, June 17, 2009
  94. Video games are good for you!, February 13, 2009
  95. Army is to Spend $50 Million in Edutainment for Troops, November 25, 2008
  96. Playing with Our Heads – Why Video Games are Making our Kids Smarter-and more obedient, June 17, 2009
  97. Federal Consortium on Virtual Worlds, November 19, 2007
  98. Examples of Games Based Learning, June 17, 2009
  99. Interesting Web Sites for Game-Based Training, e-Learning and Education:, June 17, 2009
  100. Fourteen Forms of Fun, June 17, 2009